AIM: Paediatric Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is rare, but its incidence is increasing, bringing forward the issue of the common pathogenic factors. The aim of this study is to verify the actual incidence of oral carcinoma reported in paediatric patients up to the age of 15 by thoroughly reviewing the available literature. Setting this cut-off age has allowed us to emphasise possible risk factors other than those always associated with the onset of this neoplasia, which are not present in this age bracket yet. METHODS: In the first stage of the research, generic key words concerning OSCC in childhood were entered into two search engines. In the second stage, terms related to predisposing diseases connected to childhood oral carcinoma and those initially found were searched. RESULTS: The literature review consisted of 55 documented cases from 1894 to 2011, of which 15 were part of complete published case reports. CONCLUSION: Paediatric OSCC, though uncommon, is not rare. The review has strongly highlighted the need to carry out an objective, thorough and standardised examination of the child's oral cavity, especially when systemic predisposing diseases, such as Epidermolysis bullosa, Xeroderma pigmentosum, Juvenile papillomatosis and Fanconi's anaemia, are present.